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时间:2015年04月04日来源:本站原创作者:qazwww点击:
XRayViews:UnderstandingtheInternalsofClasses? GabrielaAr?evalo,St?ephaneDucasse,OscarNierstrasz SoftwareCompositionGroupUniversityofBern(Switzerland){arevalo,ducasse,oscar}@iam.unibe.chAbstract Unders

XRayViews:UnderstandingtheInternalsofClasses?

GabrielaAr?evalo,St?ephaneDucasse,OscarNierstrasz

SoftwareCompositionGroupUniversityofBern(Switzerland){arevalo,ducasse,oscar}@iam.unibe.chAbstract

Understandingtheinternalworkingsofclassesisakeyprerequisitetomaintaininganobject-orientedsoftwaresys-tem.Unfortunately,classicaleditingandbrowsingtoolsof-fermainlylinearandtextualviewsofclassesandtheirim-plementation.Theseviewsfailtoexposethesemanticrela-tionshipsbetweentheinternalpartsofaclass.WeproposeXRayviews?atechniquebasedonConceptAnalysis?whichrevealtheinternalrelationshipsbetweengroupsofmethodsandattributesofaclass.XRayviewsarecom-posedoutofelementarycollaborationsbetweenattributesandmethodsandhelptheengineertobuildamentalmodelofhowaclassworksinternally.InthispaperwepresentXRayviews,andillustratetheapproachbyapplyingitontheSmalltalkclassUIBuilder.

Keywords:ClassUnderstanding,ConceptAnalysis,LogicalViews

1Introduction

Understandingsourcecodeisakeyactivityinthemain-tenanceofsoftwaresystems.Duringthisphase,itisesti-matedthatsoftwareprofessionalsspendatleasthalftheirtimereadingandanalysingsoftwareinordertounderstandit.Thus,codereadingisnotonlyameanstounderstandsoftware,butisalsoaviablestrategyforcheckingandas-suringsoftwarequality[2].

Inthespeci?ccaseofobjectorientedsystems,readingthecodeisharderthanproceduralsystems[3,9],andthere-forethemaintenanceisactuallyhigher.Thisisduetosev-eralreasons[4].The?rstissueisthat,contrarytoprocedu-rallanguages,themethodde?nitionorderina?leisnotim-portant[3].Thereisnosimpleandapparenttop-downcalldecomposition,evenifsomelanguagesproposethevisibil-itynotion(private,protected,andpublic).Furthermore,the

?In

ProceedingsofASE2003(AutomatedSoftwareEngineering),pp.267-270,我省钱购买“志玲”姐姐之称的日本人气王波多野结衣的名器-两性资讯-广州性情吧,IEEEComputerSociety,2003

run-timearchitectureisnotapparentfromthesourcecode,whichonlyexposestheclasshierarchy[4].Anotherimpor-tantproblemisthepresenceoflate-bindingleadsto“yoyoeffects”whenwalkingthroughahierarchyandtryingtofol-lowthecall-?ow[12].

Focusingonclasses,consideredascornerstonesofob-jectorientedsystems,weproposeatechniquetosupportsoftwareengineersinthetaskofunderstandingacomplexobject-orientedsystem.Insteadofrequiringtheengineertoreadcodeline-by-linetounderstandhowaclassworks,weprovidelogicallyconnected“XRayviews”ofclassesthatgivetheengineeranimpressionoftherelationshipsbetweenmethods,attributes,andtheinvocationandaccesspatternsofaclass.Inthiswaywesupportopportunisticun-derstanding[10]inwhichtheengineerunderstandsaclassiterativelybyexploringpatternsandreadingcode.Tobepreciseintherestofthepaper,weusethetermcollabora-tiontoexpressarelationshipbetweenasetofmethodsandasetofattributes.

Takingintoaccounttheclassasasoleunit,weareabletoprovideanswerstothefollowingquestionsaboutaclass:(a)whichmethodsaccessanyattribute,上海申博代理,directlyorindi-rectly,(b)whichgroupsofmethodsaccessdirectlyorindi-rectlyalltheattributesorsomesubsetoftheattributes,(c)whichmethodsareonlycalledinternally,(d)whichmeth-ods/attributesareheavilyusedandaccessed,(e)howthemethodsandattributescollaborate.Eachoftheseaspectsisimportantforunderstandingtheinnerworkingsofaclass,butunfortunatelytheyareimplicitinthesourcecode,andthereforecannoteasilybeteasedoutbyastraightforwardreadingofthesource.Forthisreasonwegenerateagraphrepresentationofthesourcecodeandrunourtool,ConAn,whichappliesConceptAnalysistodetectdifferentcollabo-rationstocomposethemintheXRayviews.Conceptanal-ysis(CA)[5]isabranchoflatticetheorythatallowsustoidentifymeaningfulgroupingsof“objects”thathavecom-mon“attributes”1.Thesegroupings(knownasconcepts)formapartialorderknownasconceptlattice.Thereare

1To

avoidconfusionwithobject-orientedterminology,wereferinthis

paperinsteadtoelementshavingcommonproperties

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